Some of the more prominant rulers were:
Nebapolassar, a Chaldean drove Assyria out of Babylon. Assyria ceased as an empire in 609 B.C.
The Chaldeans were also called the neo-Babylonians. This was the name of the land and it's inhavitants in Southern Babylon. Later the name was used to denote Babylon as a whole. The Non-Babylonian (Chaldean) dynasty lasted from 626-539. Nebuchadnezzar II was its most famous king.
In 539 the Persians under Cyrus entered the city and king Belshazzar was slain.
The customs and laws of the Medes were combined with the Persians after the defeat of the Medes in 550. The Medes yielded to the Persian conqueror Cyrus in 549 B.C.
Cyrus the Persian conquered both Media (550 B.C.) and Babylon (539 B.C.) Cyrus initiated a major policy shift, creating an enlightened and humane government that allowed Aramaic-speaking people, including Jews to hold official posts.
Xerxes (also known as Ahasuerus) was the son of Darius I and father of Artaxeres I. He reigned from 486-465 B.C. Xerxes is the king mentioned in the Bible who deposed Vashti as queen and chose Esther in her stead (478 B.C.) Four years later he gave one of his most honored nobles Haman (an Agagite) permission to destroy the Jews. This plan was upset by the hand of God.
King Artaxerxes I gave the Jews permission to return to and rebuild Jerusalem. Reference the books of Ezra and Nehemiah.
The Persian empire was invaded and overthrown by Alexander III (the Great) of Macedon from 334-330 B.C.
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